Depending on what definition you use, an argument comes in many forms. Recently I’ve adopted the philosophical and logical definition. An argument is a statement in which premises (propositions) support a claim.
James was born in Ireland. James holds an Irish passport. Therefore James is an Irish citizen. This is a simple syllogism as popularised by Aristotle. You make a claim, then you back it up with supporting evidence. This is deductive logic at its finest.
Other types of arguments can result in name-calling, Internet hating, divorce, law-breaking and severe migraine. I can almost see Aristotle spinning in his grave.